- Betriebskultur und Globalisierung
- Die Missionarische Gesellschaft : Mikrostrukturen Einer Kolonialen Globalisierung
- Letztes Jahr starb Captain America | Eurozine
- Aktuelle Ausgabe
- The American West - Myth vs. Reality
Betriebskultur und Globalisierung
Furthermore, the cultural effetcs of globalisation will be looked at in this context. Bertelsmann, which is one of the largest media corporations in the world third as of Mbcnet, is the only antagonist to this media empire. On the one side is Bertelsmann with major investments in book, magazine, records, and music publishing, broadcasting, on-line services, and other allied entertainment and information products. Toggle navigation Shorts Einaudi.
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Die Missionarische Gesellschaft : Mikrostrukturen Einer Kolonialen Globalisierung
After brief trials, bold claim jumpers or criminals were often hanged, flogged or driven out of the camp. Along with the time of the desperadoes came the time of the lawmen, the sheriffs and marshals. This is first because they are antagonists, the good guys versus the bad guys and second because the gap between good and evil is smaller than everyone thinks. Society needs protection from those who break the law, and experienced people are better, so why not converting ex-outlaws into lawmen.
Letztes Jahr starb Captain America | Eurozine
This movement was supported by outlaws as being lawman increased the action and was also financially attracting. Therefore, it is not surprising that some of the sheriffs also incorporate the bad guy at a certain time in their lives. Some really changed as they grew older, but some remained always the same and they only changed in the myth. The executive of the lawmen in the American West divided up into sheriffs, town-marshals, US-marshals and their deputies.
The sheriff was elected by the people of a county or town for between 12 months and 4 years. A sheriff executes arrest warrants and judgments, he usually gets money for arrests and also a certain percentage of the taxes he collected. This made the post lucrative. The town-marshal is appointed by the municipality and he can be fired at any time. He can act only within a town and only with legal methods. A town- marshal is responsible for adherence to law and order. Town-marshals are supported in their task by constables.
The US-marshal is appointed by the US government and responsible for the protection of federal institutions, e. All three of them, sheriffs and both marshals, are allowed to appoint deputies. Even though the image of the lawmen is a good one in films and novels, reality proved to be different. Personal interests and revenge were easier to achieve with a badge on the breast. The cowboy of the American West, shown in films and novels as a stalwart, romantic hero to the nostalgic public as in Owen Wister's 'The Virginian' , was in fact a poorly paid laborer doing his difficult and monotonous job.
Cowboys became important after the mid's, after the Civil war as the range cattle industry developed. The majority of the cowboys came from the South, just because the ranges were in the South, but there also existed cowboys from Northern States. Most of the had fought in the Civil War. There were also blacks and Mexicans that were cowboys, not all of them were whites. The year of a cowboy focused on two events, the roundup and the long drive. Spring and often fall were the times for roundups.
The cowboy had to drive the cattle together at a certain location and then the newborn calves were branded and the older animals were castrated and dehorned. Further, the cattle which will be sold on the market are selected.
In the years between and , approximately 3. The herds went from southern Texas to cattle towns on railroad lines in Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming. The path the cowboys most often took was the Chisholm Trail, which led to Abilene, Kansas. After , the cattle ranges had been fenced in and the railroad system had extended to remove the need for long cattle drives. Thus, the cowboy era was over. In literature, however, the cowboy era begun and although the upcoming image of a cowboy was not realistic, it continued to dominate the popular stories of the cattle frontier.
Cowboy was used as a invective against all characters who appeared to be asocial, a cowboy was described as a rough guy with stare eyes, putting his trousers in big boots, as defined in the Lippincott's magazine by Laura Winthrop Johnson in The cowboy's tendency towards violence is not condemned due to its combination with courage, generosity, honesty and a 'strange, paradox code of personal honor' as stated in Scribner's magazine by Henry King in the November issue.
The cowboy is another example for converting something alien into something native.
The American West - Myth vs. Reality
In the 19th century, nothing was less American for the Yankee than the cowboy, and now nothing seems to be more American than 'The Great American Cowboy'. The astonishing thing about the cowboy is that he found freedom without violence, even if H. Stammel, a well-known American West expert, wrote that the cowboy had been uncivilized, hard and rough by that time but no type of mankind had ever previously shown us that freedom without violence was neither to achieve nor to defend.
This ideology was not created by the historical cowboy, not even by cowboy-related working-literature but by fictional literature, like for example Owen Wister and Zane Grey. Reality shows that freedom can be achieved either by purchase or by denial. The cowboy gained freedom through denial, through ignorance. He ignored ideals like commerce, technology, civilization, Puritanism, highest ideals of American society. On the one hand, he does not take part in this society, but on the other hand does not want to form a outsider society.
This individualism fits into the idea of the American Dream and therefore is a good basis for myths. There indeed only was a limited number of women in the Frontier districts as life was hard, dangerous, dirty and uncivilized, unattractive for women. The West was a romantic attraction for men however. But without women, men were doomed. Women who did go West were either attracted by the money or from the hard type. But in some Westerns they are shown as nice-dressed ladies from the city, entering the dust of the Frontier via stagecoach and then immediately feeling uncomfortable.
Real life in fact was hard. According to the stories of Hamlin Garland and other writers, especially pioneer women suffered. The endless strain of hard work, childbearing, and sickness, in addition to the fear of Indian attacks, caused most women to grow old before the age of The loneliness created by the lack of social contact with friends or neighbors for long periods, often months at a time, was even worse.
As settlers had nothing in the beginning, it was very important for them to find something to believe in. So they created their own ideologies. The expression 'Manifest Destiny' was created by John L. According to O'Sullivan, it is 'the fulfillment of our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of out yearly multiplying millions.
O'Sullivan was of the opinion that the United States should not limit its territorial expansion, and since then historians have discussed whether 'Manifest Destiny' was only a cover for imperialism. The birth of the term was not by any means the birth of the idea of 'Manifest Destiny'. The idea already had played a major role in the War of The term 'Manifest Destiny' was used by the Americans as a justification for the territorial expansion of the United States. The term was used to defend the Mexican War , the Alaska Purchase and the Spanish-American War , all ending in territorial gains for the United States.
Even today America's international policy and it's role as the world's policeman seems to fit in the 'Manifest Destiny' ideology, interfering everywhere in the world and overspreading the globe with the American way of life. As every place on Earth is populated and American expansion would result in war, America's New Frontier is the space. This development was initiated by John F. Kennedy, America's president from , who changed the nation's position towards the conquest of outer space by increasing the political and historical concern. On the one hand, it symbolized America's progress in technology and advance in fancy gadgets that always fascinated Americans, on the other hand, it perfectly represented the idea of 'Manifest Destiny'.
Two decades after Columbus went to America, the British Thomas Morus wrote his 'Utopia', the description of a ideal community, perfect in its political, social, as well as economic policy at the same time. In their imagination, people believed this paradise Morus created was in the West. Since that days, people thought a better world could be created in the far widths beyond the Atlantic Ocean. This assumption moved the Protestant Pilgrim fathers in the 17th century as well as the masses of European settlers in the 19th century, it impelled social reform utopians, sectarians of all kinds and refugees of our century to the North American continent.
Natural liberalism seems to be a phenomena that characterized American political thinking from the very beginning when the first colonists arrived.
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This results from the fact that every place of the Old World witnessed suppression, freedom was hunted all around the globe. The mere thought, the moral demand, to make the New World a home of ratio and freedom can secure the future of humane existence. There is criticism today, though, because social and economic problems have been increasing. As punk criticizes everything, everywhere, it was not difficult to find critique on the American Dream.